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5/10/2017

A happy number is a number defined by the following process: Starting with any positive integer, replace the number by the sum of the squares of its digits, and repeat the process until the number either equals 1 (where it will stay), or it loops endlessly in a cycle that does not include 1. Those numbers for which this process ends in 1 are happy numbers, while those that do not end in 1 are unhappy numbers (or sad numbers).**Overview**

More formally, given a number η = η_{0} , define a sequence _{1}, η η_{2}, ... where _{i+1} is the sum of the squares of the digits of η η_{i}. Then *n* is happy if and only if there exists *i* such that η_{i }= 1.

If a number is happy, then all members of its sequence are happy; if a number is unhappy, all members of the sequence are unhappy.

For example, 19 is happy, as the associated sequence is:

- 1
^{2}+ 9^{2}= 82 - 8
^{2}+ 2^{2}= 68 - 6
^{2}+ 8^{2}= 100 - 1
^{2}+ 0^{2}+ 0^{2}= 1.

The 143 happy numbers up to 1,000 are:

- 1, 7, 10, 13, 19, 23, 28, 31, 32, 44, 49, 68, 70, 79, 82, 86, 91, 94, 97, 100, 103, 109, 129, 130, 133, 139, 167, 176, 188, 190, 192, 193, 203, 208, 219, 226, 230, 236, 239, 262, 263, 280, 291, 293, 301, 302, 310, 313, 319, 320, 326, 329, 331, 338, 356, 362, 365, 367, 368, 376, 379, 383, 386, 391, 392, 397, 404, 409, 440, 446, 464, 469, 478, 487, 490, 496, 536, 556, 563, 565, 566, 608, 617, 622, 623, 632, 635, 637, 638, 644, 649, 653, 655, 656, 665, 671, 673, 680, 683, 694, 700, 709, 716, 736, 739, 748, 761, 763, 784, 790, 793, 802, 806, 818, 820, 833, 836, 847, 860, 863, 874, 881, 888, 899, 901, 904, 907, 910, 912, 913, 921, 923, 931, 932, 937, 940, 946, 964, 970, 973, 989, 998, 1000 (sequence A007770 in the OEIS).

The happiness of a number is unaffected by rearranging the digits, and by inserting or removing any number of zeros anywhere in the number.

The distinct combinations of digits that form happy numbers below 1,000 follow (the rest are just rearrangements and/or insertions of zero digits):

- 1, 7, 13, 19, 23, 28, 44, 49, 68, 79, 129, 133, 139, 167, 188, 226, 236, 239, 338, 356, 367, 368, 379, 446, 469, 478, 556, 566, 888, 899. (sequence A124095 in the OEIS).

Source: Happy Number

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